Citation essay definition
Giving credit to the original author by citing sources is the only way to use other people's work without plagiarizing. If you are trying to publish a paper in a specific journal, you will be required to follow the format of that journal. APA citation style is similar to Harvard referencing , listing the author's name and year of publication, although these can take two forms: name citations in which the surnames of the authors appear in the text and the year of publication then appears in parentheses, and author-date citations, in which the surnames of the authors and the year of publication all appear in parentheses. Citing an Author or Authors Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work. Although footnotes or notes at the bottom of the page are sometimes required, endnotes have become the predominant form of notes citations. The note and the bibliographic entry include almost identical information but in a different format. Including references in academic writing not only defends you against allegations of plagiarism, but it is one of the most important ways to demonstrate your knowledge and understanding of previous investigations about the research problem. For further information on note format or other issues related to citing sources using the Chicago style, see The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. Example: Smith has argued this point. What if I find exactly what I want to say in the writing of another researcher?
Mind over Matter section, para. Masters Thesis, University of Alaska, Anchorage. All bibliographical information is exclusively included in the list of references at the end of the document, next to the respective citation number.
The simplest way to do this is to parenthetically give the author's last name and the year of publication, e. Martin's Handbook. In the reference list, use the name Anonymous as the author.
In text citation
For further information on citing sources using the Chicago style, see The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. If the sentence is either long enough or complex enough so that the cited portion of the sentence is not obvious, the parenthetical reference may instead be inserted immediately after the use of information from the source. Appreciate, however, that any "commonly known fact" is culturally constructed and shaped by social and aesthetical biases. For two author papers, give both authors' last names e. Johnson argued that These are separated by a colon and no spaces. The simplest way to do this is to parenthetically give the author's last name and the year of publication, e. Personal Communication: For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicator's name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication. New York: St. If a study from forty years ago investigated the same research problem, it probably should be examined and considered in your list of references because the research may have been foundational or groundbreaking even if its findings are no longer relevant to current conditions or reflect current thinking [one way to determine if a study is foundational or groundbreaking is to examine how often it has been cited in recent studies using the "Cited by" feature of Google Scholar]. Jones found "students often had difficulty using APA style" p. You still must cite the original work.
The following situations almost always require citation: whenever you use quotes whenever you use an idea that someone else has already expressed whenever you make specific reference to the work of another whenever someone else's work has been critical in developing your own ideas.
Research by Wegener and Petty supports Used by genealogists and historians.
How to cite a source in an essay
Citations to other sources helps readers expand their knowledge on a topic. This increases your credibility as the author of the work. Research by Wegener and Petty supports The act of citing sources is also your best defense against allegations of plagiarism. The style of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IEEE , or IEEE style , encloses citation numbers within square brackets and numbers them consecutively, with numbers repeated throughout the text as needed. Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutoring "Tutoring and APA," n. This style of citations and bibliographical format uses parenthetical referencing with author-page Smith or author-[short] title-page Smith, Contingencies 42 in the case of more than one work by the same author within parentheses in the text, keyed to an alphabetical list of sources on a "Works Cited" page at the end of the paper, as well as notes footnotes or endnotes. In fact, the opposite is true. What if I find exactly what I want to say in the writing of another researcher? What should I do if I want to use an adapted version of someone else's work? To demonstrate you have considered others' research. Instead, attribution may be given to information from a daily newspaper in a parenthetical reference. Example: …Welch contends that this is not the case Harris et al.
This will actually emphasize the originality of your own work. Do not ignore another author's work because doing so will lead your readers to believe that you have either borrowed the idea or information without properly referencing it [this is plagiarism] or that you have failed to conduct a thorough review of the literature.
In-text references How you cite a working within your document varies depending on your writing style, whether you are quoting your source directly, and the type of source you are quoting.
The key is to build on that idea in new and innovative ways. When using endnotes to indicate the use of research sources, writers must also include a bibliography at the end of the essay.
Since citing sources is not a creative enterprise, you should consult the appropriate print version of the style guide when you have questions about citation.
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