Lexicology and etymology
The lexical rules also explain the interrelationship between different lexical units in a language. This is the legislative or the court house function of the dictionary2. The rules of morphological derivation relate to the change in morphological structure by addition of some suffixes or affixes to stems e. The semantic characteristics relate to the bundle of semantic features of a lexical unit in terms of their oppositeness and contrastiveness. Another difference between the practical and the theoretical dictionary lies in the system of the 'arrangement' of lexical entries. Main article: Lexicography A familiar example of lexicology at work is that of dictionaries and thesauri. So lexicology is closely related to phonetics and grammar. The common concern of both of them is 'word' or the lexical unit of a language. Thus he enters the domain of ethnolinguistics. These features are marked by such specific parts of speech as noun, adjective or the secondary grammatical categories like transitive, intransitive of verbs , count, mass of noun etc. Moreover, many languages still remain uninvestigated. He presents the words of the lexical system in a way so as to make it more practically useable in real life situation i. Lexicographical works had preceded grammatical works in many languages. Historical phonetics helps in the study of polysemy, homonymy and synonymy.
This is found out from the grammatical study of the language. Etymology gives him the clue to decide the basic meaning. As a matter of fact, there can be no strict separation of the two in terms that the dictionary is concerned with words only, or the grammar is concerned with forms and the dictionary with meaning.
It deals with something like universals in language. Grammar sets up classes and studies relationship between them. So "in a certain sense lexicography may be considered a superior discipline to lexicology, for results are more important than intentions and the value of theoretical principles must be estimated according to results".
Words undergo constant change in their form and meaning and lexicology studies the vocabulary of a language in terms of its origin, development and current use. As a word does not occur in isolation, lexicology studies it with its combinative possibilities.
The lexical rules are of different types viz.
The speaker has this dictionary as an equipment enabling him to chose and use appropriate words in different structures and contexts. Language is a social phenomenon.
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